This indicates that one of the barriers of motivation, which may often lead to frustrations in the organisational management, is the absence of instrumentality and valence from the job. This theory has also received considerable support over the years, as it not only holds true in real life observations, but also presents a rational argument, which is that a person will only be motivated towards a goal which they find attainable. An employee will not be willing to expend hours of work and sweat if there is no success that will follow (Gist, 1987, 472). Thus, the manager should see to it that the tasks assigned to the employees have both instrumentality and valence for them. If they feel that they will be able to perform the task at hand successfully if they try hard enough, and that the task is not too difficult to perform and has a beneficial result, they will be motivated to give the job their best effort. If the management does not cater to these two factors, the employees will not expect any positive outcome from their jobs, which will decrease their productivity and satisfaction (Robbins et al, 2007, 145).
Several modern theories have also contributed to understanding the motivational process and the relevant barriers. Esko Schuitema (2010) revealed a particularly interesting finding in relation to motivation and leadership (Cummings, 2008, 67-81). He found that it is essential for the leader in an organisation to exercise correct mentality and intentions when assigning work to the employees (Crosetto, 2005, 20-41). This requires the manager to consider the worker’s growth and success as well when directing them to perform a task, instead of simply ‘using’ the person to make the organisation successful. Otherwise, the worker does not have the motivation needed to perform the task assigned to them.
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