According to the journal, “the stress literature demonstrates that males and females react to stress in diverse ways. A common empirical observation is that females tend to internalize reactions to stress, whereas males tend to externalize. Thus, females often become depressed or withdrawn, whereas males tend to become aggressive, get involved in delinquency and/or use drugs as a consequence of stress” (Hoffman and Su, 1997: 49). The main connection here, between the article and strain theory is the effect of the pressures faced by every individual, man and women because of the society in which they live.
According to the authors of the articles, a theoretical model namely the individualistic model is maintained and is relates to the adolescents who are very sensitive to negative feelings around them. This can include criticism, negative aspects of relationships etc and they believe that at times, people who possess such characteristics refrain from getting into interpersonal relationships to avoid evaluation and criticism. What is more is that such people at times believe that aggression and aggressive behavior can be used as a means to deflect criticism and negative perception of their personality and eventually such people, in the face of stressful events in life turn to negative behavior. Such people are the ones who mostly turn to drug use, criminal activities etc to cover up parts of their personalities where they believe they lack. Literature shows that this model is fit for males because, “sex differentiated socialization practices- in the family and in other social settings- cause females to be more concerned with relationships and emotional closeness; males, on the other hand are socialized to be more aggressive” (Hoffman and Su, 1997: 50).
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