Traceability refers to the ability of systematically or chronologically interrelating uniquely identifiable entities or areas of vital concern in a way that is easily verifiable. 1 While certification on the other hand is the procedure which all official certified or certification bodies and recognized quality control assurance bodies use to determine that all product control systems used in a line of production, manufacturing or processing, conform to stipulated requirements.
Mainly, these procedures are based on various ranges of inspection activities such as the inspection of a given continuous on-line inspection, auditing of quality assurance systems, and examination of finished products. 7, 10 The major reason why certification and traceability are used is based on the fact that both are limited to ensure that the government, consumers and other businesses can be able to identify the immediate supplier of the product in question and the immediate targeted subsequent recipients, with the exemption of retailers, other competitors and the final consumers. Basing this research work on the above facts, it goes without saying that the first aspect on government regulation on the certification of upstream traceability can be met. In this case, suppliers can help in many ways, as it has been argued and discussed in most established journals, in building a stronger brand positioning for their manufacturers by carrying out a number of the following explicitly discussed success marketing strategies 8 with an aim of developing a breakthrough in their value added ingredient products. This will largely initiate their product commercialization process in addition to meeting other government certification regulation demands. 16
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