Among the myriad challenges facing the Afghan educational system is the language to which education is provided. Banzet and de Geoffroy (2006) noted that with over four main languages (Pashto, Dari, Turkmen and Uzbek) with the exception of the 30 minor language variations and numerous dialects, effective communications within the schools among the various stakeholders are not always easy to achieve. Schooling had come to be provided across several different models. First, the “quasi-public schools” which are largely administered by NGOs in the absence of government support but serve as formal schools, the community-based rural and more informal model provided with support of NGOs. Second,the home-based programs tending to rely on female teachers who were forbidden from teaching in the formal schools after the Taliban came to power. And finally, the non-formal educational models helmed by NGOs which sought to provide skill training and life education to adolescents and adults (male and female) in “vulnerable situations” with the goal of enabling them to support and protect themselves in Afghanistan’s unstable environment (Education and the role of NGOs, 2006; Sommers, 2004). These various models continue to exist in Afghanistan’s current educational environment.
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