Sample Essay

The ensuing centuries saw the rise and fall of Genghis Khan’s influence in the region, as well as the segmenting of the country into various principalities which were eventually brought to heel under the rule of Tamerlane in the 16th Century. At this time, Kabul was established as the capital of the Afghan principality. Under the 18th century leadership of the Pashto Ahmad Durrani, Afghanistan was officially consolidated into one country. For the next two centuries — with a brief exception of nine months in 1929 — Afghanistan remained under Pashto leadership until the 1978 Marxist revolution in the country (CIA Factbook, 2009; Nyrop, 2001).

Modern History (European Influence in the Region)

Over the course of the 19th century, Britain’s expanding influence throughout the world and its colonization of far-flung territories resulted in several major conflicts with Russia. This resulted to explore the bounds of its empire-building efforts and exerting greater influence in the region. Two of these clashes occurred in Afghanistan. The first of these conflicts, which occurred between 1839 and 1842, culminated in the destruction of an entire British army, and “is remembered today as an example of the ferocity of Afghan resistance to foreign rule (Nyrop, 2001, p. xv). One might argue that a thumbnail sketch of Afghanistan’s ancient history serves as an equally compelling example of Afghans’ long-seated resistance to foreign rule (Johnson & Leslie, 2007).

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