Moreover, Summers pointed out the Johnson administration, which was the question of the declaration of war. The Johnson administration failed to seek a declaration of war and confuses correlation with causality. Whereas, in a democratic system a declaration of war was just a piece of paper. It was one of several expressions of public will.
Elections, media coverage and organized movements, like the anti-war movement, were also expressions of public will. A war declaration was also one formal expression of congressional will. Summers gave the insight of the American history that the support of the American people was considered the most important. The Army could only mobilize and deployed, when the American people give their approval through elected representative in Congress. The decision to go to war was made when the executive, the legislature and public are all in agreement. Instead, Johnson and his circle of advisers crept into Vietnam, believing the war could be fought on a limited scale, by the military, without the full commitment of the American people. He never imagined the kind of engagement American find themselves in, Johnson thought it was possible to get in, get out a short time later, and then turned his full attention to his domestic programs. In 1939 the Army’s Field Service Regulations stated as the first principle of operations;
The Congress determines the strength and composition of the peace and war establishments and decides what citizens are available for military service.
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