In the study conducted by Wang and Wang (2006), management development in China has been increasingly adopted as a strategic tool for achieving desired organizational outcomes and effective individual performance. The paper outlines some of the challenges that corporations in China face when implementing training programs. According to Branine (2003), the demand for training and management education is apparently required at all levels since there is an acute shortage of sufficiently qualified managers to match up the demands of economic reforms. He noticed that the managers who had undergone technical training or trade ranged from zero in the services enterprise industry to only 35 percent in manufacturing industry. He guessed that when the reforms were done, about two-thirds of the Chinese managers were not professionally qualified beyond high-school level. He further analyses how Chinese managers respond to training programs designed by Westerners and concludes that training and talent development programs should be aligned with Chinese cultures and backgrounds in order to increase their potential and effectiveness.
Siu and Ng (2004) further elaborates that for training programs to be effective, they must take into account three major objectives – enhancing working relationships, tackling skill deficiencies and skills development. They also discovered that talent development in state-owned enterprises (SOEs) focus more on skill development while non-state-owned enterprises (non-SOEs) focus on both skills improvement and enhancing working relationships. Wright, Phillip, Szeto, and Louis (2002) suggest that one of the main reasons that inhibit China’s economic development was the greater focus on industrialization instead of education and the neglect of managerial and professional skills. They argue that whereas the scale of China’s management training and education effort is laudable, representing a notable manifestation of the regime’s resolve to modernize its economy, training programs that are employer-sponsored still remains a serious weakness. On top of that, the weaknesses are compounded by the emphasis on quantitative and not qualitative knowledge, and by a little or no understanding of training priorities.
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