Sample Essay

Descartes with his philosophical explanations creates doubts in our mind as to what our senses say about the material world, he rejected the obvious and imagined the opposite, and he says our senses can deceive us and sometimes our thoughts while awake may also occur in our dreams though they may not be true but what he found was the concept of ‘I’, ‘I was thinking’, ‘I was dreaming’ the truth was that ‘I’ is the soul, he calls himself a ‘thinking thing’ and he could not imagine that he did not exist though he doubted the truth of other things yet  he existed and he thought of himself as substance or material whose main nature is to think ,he says I am what I am even if the body did not exist as the soul is independent of physical material and would always survive, he concludes this argument as saying he could pretend he had no body, but a bodily movement as stretching out a hand is a simple truth our sense agrees on, the movement is related to the body,

but doubts our sense as I might be stretching my hand in sleep or a dream, though his philosophy has many doubts yet he proves the existence of material world by his theory of ‘dualism’, he separates universal images from the geometrical shapes with his intellect and knowledge, he proves the existence of material world by his general theory of the material universe, the existence of space mass and solid matter, he proves that the main source of information depends on light, the passing of light through luminous objects, ruled by the mathematical laws and nature of light create images on the retina which is reflected and refracted; the interaction of body and soul, the relationship of the mind and soul as body is like a machine and therefore it is a material. Descartes theory is based on reality and nature, according to him the world has two substances the spirit and matter, it is the physical universe of which our bodies are a part, the mind and spirit interact with our body, he also proves the existence of material world by his theory of ideas, which are the mental agents of things that really exist, the reliability of ideas depends on the source it comes from, ideas may enter our mind from outside world  or made by the mind itself or ordered by God and he believes in the existence of God, and he says if he is always wrong than God made him like that, since God can never be wrong ,there is no fault, thus depending on his intellectual knowledge and senses he proves that material world exists.

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