This section of the essay would ascertain that whether or not the Russian IO is mature and robust. One thing that is for sure is the existent of Russian Information Operations, either supported or fully functional by the government itself, or run by the patriotic Russians. Whatsoever the case may be, it is clear that Russian Information Operation may have less technical sophistication, but are highly systematic in nature. This systemization is visible in the planning performed, structure of the organization, and strategy for doing attacks. The leadership found in the IO and the hierarchal structure depicts the robustness and maturity possessed by the Russian IO. The real attack is carried out by the lower ranking members; however, they wait for the orders from the leaders who provide essential techniques for conducting the attack (Carr, 2008, p. 4).
According to Burton (n.d, p. 11), the military theory of Russia can be regarded as very comprehensive and organized, which clearly contrasts the science with the military art. The open source writings of Russian are very limited in numbers; however, they are still clearly highlighting the theories in a very thorough manner. On the other hand, Western writings emphasize on the practical working. The Russian IO is mature and capable since their writings depict the high level of thinking that has been done regarding the targeting, affecting, and assessing Information Operation efforts.
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