Q.2.Identify and explain the stages of moral development according to L.Kolhberg.?
A.2. Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of different stages of moral development are based on behavioral choice and influence of moral reasoning, Kohlberg uses moral judgments to determine different stages of moral development, there are six stages of development. Stage.1.Obedience and punishment orientation: this is the first stage, here the child thinks that all rules are set by the elders or higher authorities which must be obeyed without questions, all acts are related to law and punishment as, if a child steals, he will be punished because it is against the law and is bad morally, a child reasons only by seeing the external forces he is to do as the elders say.
Stage2. Individualism and exchange: At this stage the child learns that different people have different right views they may not agree to the views of others but they do not have any identification with society or family they are aware of the needs of others and at this stage exchange favors between them recognizing the need of others.
Stage3.Good Interpersonal Relationships: This is the stage where child enters his teen years; the child believes that he has to live up to the expectations of the family community and society they must have good intentions, good behavior and good motives towards others and must have love and trust and concern for others, the child thinks doing good leads to good moral behavior which is accepted by the family and society.
Stage4.Maintaining the Social Order: Reasoning starts at this level of the mind, the child reasons and tries to find ways to help and understand the needs and requirements of others now the child is concerned about the society, he obeys respects authority and performs his duties so that social order is maintained by doing good deeds and not acting against the rules, otherwise there will be chaos and disturbance.
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