Extensive work using theory of Care Diversity and Universality provides a source of client “caring” perspectives, which contributes to knowledge. Two recent studies suggest that knowledge alone is insufficient for attuned care (Kavanagh et al., 2006; Kulwicki, Miller, & Schimm, 2006). Knowledge without ongoing self-reflection, engagement, and a belief in dynamic learning can become a cookbook approach to care and can perpetuate stereotypes.

As a result, practitioners may view a client’s care with a color-blind and culture-blind view (Bond et al., 2001), which may lead to the client perceiving being treated differently or the practitioner providing inadequate care (Kulwicki et al., 2006).

As far as cultural competence in Nursing scholars have suggested, ethnicity represents the

“heterogeneity between, as well as within, groups, including marginalization of such groups as homeless

persons, persons with HP/ and AIDS, gays [sic] and lesbians,” and people who are physically disabled.

McKinley, C. O., Parmer,E., Saint-Amand A., & Darbin, (2000) distinguished between competence in

surface structure elements of culture (e.g., language, food) and competence in deep structure elements

(e.g., the historical and political forces affecting groups).


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