Sample Essay

1.3 For the antenna and target geometry in part 1.1, write an equation in terms of σ and σo (the signals that would be received in the presence and absence of the ground plane respectively) and provide a physical explanation for each term in the equation.

1.4 Targets of interest in a tracking radar system may be affected by a surface reflected wave. For a radar height of 30 m, target height of 100 m and range of 10 km, calculate the range resolution required to avoid angle error due to multi-path to target.


2.1 Two elements of Electronic Warfare (EW) are Electronic Attack (EA) and Electronic Protection (EP).

(a) Give an example of an EA system

An example of Electronic Attack is Radar Jamming in which radio waves are used to jam or confuse radar (Adamy 177).

(b) Give an example of an EP system

An Example of Electronic Protection can be the use of spread spectrum technologies in radar in order to avoid jamming (Adamy 177).

(c) Use these examples to explain the difference between EA and EP.

The utilization of Electromagnetic energy to attack buildings, equipments or other facilities of the enemy is called Electronic Attack. For example if radar is jammed by using electromagnetic waves, then it can be said that an Electronic Attack was carried out on it. On the other hand, if the radar uses spread spectrum technology in order to avoid jamming, then this is referred to as Electronic Protection which is the act of taking measure to counter Electronic Attacks (Adamy 177).

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